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May 16, 2022 | 綜合公告
FIHRM-AP 第二期新訊與專文發布 The Second Issue of Newsletter and Feature Articles on the Federation of International Human Rights Museums- Asia Pacific Official Website Released
主題:行動主義博物館的發聲與現身 Speak Up and Come Forward: Museums of Activism
FIHRM-AP 編輯室的話

      國際人權博物館聯盟亞太分會(FIHRM-AP)官方網站第二期新訊專文主題訂為「行動主義博物館的發聲與現身」,呼應2022年國際博物館日「博物館的力量(The Power of Museums)」--強調博物館有能力對其社群帶來積極正向的改變。過去,博物館與行動主義像是兩條平行線,博物館以不介入爭議之「中立」身份自居,不過這樣的身份,也可能讓博物館與社會漸行漸遠,如今,行動主義博物館現身,積極為邊緣群體發聲,為政治、社會或環境帶來改變。本期收錄三篇文章,凸顯了行動主義博物館的價值,相似之處在於各自所在的政治社會脈絡,都面臨過或正在面對統治政權的壓迫,博物館在其中可能成為宣揚意識形態的工具或抵抗主流論述的利器。

       新訊⟪統一與緬甸博物館⟫分為上下兩篇文章,由「一步電影論壇」的推動者Thet Oo Maung(Stephen Minus)所撰,作者從批判的角度讓我們思考博物館如何成為政府意識形態宣傳的機器,文章提到緬甸政府以單一共通的信仰團結民心而獨尊佛教,藉此打壓異己。事實上,緬甸民族相當多元,擁有不同的文化與宗教遺產,卻在博物館中不被看見,或被誤導式的再現為佛教文物,更甚者因不當管理的結果,文物遺失流落黑市,作者提醒我們當博物館只能服膺於統治政權的掌控,不僅對於文化遺產保存是莫大傷害,亦成為宗教與族群歧視的幫兇。

       新訊⟪讓物件說故事:10月6日博物館計畫觀察⟫,10月6日博物館計畫共同發起人Patporn (Aor) Phoothong以正在進行中的博物館計畫挑戰泰國長期存在有罪不罰的文化,該計畫致力揭開1976年10月6日,泰國法政大學發生的流血鎮壓事件,透過在事件發生地舉辦展覽,讓觀眾成為過去暴力的證人。藉由這個計畫,我們了解到如何將博物館作為一個社會政治空間,以物件蒐集、展覽、工作坊、研討會等方法,喚起公眾意識,參與溝通討論泰國過去與目前的政治暴力。

       本期專文⟪抵抗遺忘:印尼博物館與政治運動⟫由穆尼爾之家基金會負責人Andi Achdian所撰,作者描述了印尼官方歷史建構的脈絡,以宣揚軍方角色作為主流敘事,而博物館與紀念碑也被利用作為統治政權虛假歷史意識建構的化妝師。同時,隨著學者、人權與民主運動者的疾呼,以「糾正歷史」為目標的抵抗遺忘運動展開。正在籌建中的穆尼爾人權博物館成為人權意識推廣進程的里程碑,為了擴大影響力,更需要與各方機構與利害團體合作,其中也包括提供經費與土地的政府,儘管增加了穆尼爾人權博物館獨立性的疑慮,無可否認的博物館在社會運動的前線確實能夠扮演積極的角色。

Editor's Words

Under the theme "Speak Up and Come Forward: Museums of Activism," the second issue of Newsletter and Feature Articles of FIHRM-AP official website highlights museums' capability to drive positive changes for their communities, echoing “The Power of Museums,” the theme of International Museum Day. In the past, the paths of museums and activism would never cross. Museums took a "neutral" position by staying out of contention, which may also drive museums further apart from the society. Now, museums of activism have emerged to actively give voice to the marginalized and brought about political, social and environmental changes. The three articles of this issue all highlight the value of museum activism while sharing similar political and social context—past or ongoing oppression by the ruling regime, a scenario in which museums could either serve as propaganda apparatus or a powerful tool to counter mainstream narrative. 

Written by Thet Oo Maung (Stephen Minus), the organizer of One Step Film Forum, "Unification and Myanmar Museum" is divided into two articles. The author makes us think critically about how museum has become a part of government's propaganda apparatus. According to the article, the Burmese government has managed to iron out dissidents after building people's solidarity by enshrining solely Buddhism as the one single common belief. The move disregarded Myanmar's de facto diverse ethnic groups and as a result, its various cultural and religious legacies are absent in museums or misleadingly presented as Buddhist artifacts. These artifacts even ended up in black market due to ill management. The author reminds us that when museums bow to the ruling regime, they are not only posing great harm to the preservation of cultural legacies but also abetting religious discrimination and racism. 

In "Let the objects tell their stories: Observations from the October 6 Museum Project," Patporn (Aor) Phoothong, the co-founder of October 6 Museum, describes how the project challenges Thailand's long-standing culture of impunity. It strives to unveil the blood-shedding crackdown taking place at Thammasat University on October 6, 1976. By organizing exhibition on the site of the event, visitors come to witness the atrocity of the past. The project illustrates how museum, as a political and social space, raises public awareness and facilitates engagement in discussions about Thailand's past and present political violence by means like object collection, exhibitions, workshops and seminars. 

"Against Forgetting: Museums and Political Activism in Indonesia," the feature story of this issue is written by Andi Achdian, the head of Omah Munir Foundation. The article outlines the context in which the official version Indonesian history was created. While the role of the army is celebrated in the mainstream narrative, the ruling regime also enlists museums and monuments to gloss over the history constructed on falsehood. In the meantime, as human rights and pro-democracy activists called for a movement against forgetting, "rectification of history" unfolded. The Munir Human Rights Museum under construction signals a milestone in the advancement of human rights awareness. To expand its influence, collaboration with various institutions and stakeholder organizations is even more critical, the government included, among others. Although funding and land support from the government may arouse concern about independence of the museum, it is undeniable that museum does play an active role on the front lines of social movements.

2. 統一與緬甸博物館(之二)
3. 讓物件說故事:10月6日博物館計畫觀察

1. Unification and Burmese Museums (part1)
2. Unification and Burmese Museums (part2)
3.Let the Objects Tell Their Stories: Observations from the October 6 Museum Project

1. Against Forgetting: Museums and political activism in Indonesia
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